Plastics are non-metallic, synthetic, carbon-based materials. They can be moulded, shaped, or extruded into flexible sheets, films, or fibres. Plastics are synthetic polymers. Polymers consist of long-chain molecules made of large numbers of identical small molecules (monomers). The chemical nature of a plastic is defined by the monomer (repeating unit) that makes up the chain of the polymer. Polyethene is a polyolefin; its monomer unit is ethene (formerly called ethylene). Other categories are acrylics (such as polymethylmethacrylate), styrenes (such as polystyrene), vinys (such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC)), polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides (such as nylons), polyethers, acetals, phenolics, cellulosics, and amino resins. The molecules can be either natural — like cellulose, wax, and natural rubber — or synthetic — in polyethene and nylon. In co-polymers, more than one monomer is used.The giant molecules of which polymers consist may be linear, branched, or cross-linked, depending on the plastic. Linear and branched molecules are thermoplastic (soften when heated), whereas cross-linked molecules are thermosetting (harden when heated).Most plastics are synthesized from organic chemicals or from natural gas or coal. Plastics are light-weight compared to metals and are good electrical insulators. The best insulators now are epoxy resins and teflon. Teflon or polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) was first made in 1938 and was produced commercially in 1950.Plastics can be classified into several broad types.1. Thermoplastics soften on heating, then harden again when cooled. Thermoplastic molecules are also coiled and because of this they are flexible and easily stretched.Typical example of thermoplastics is polystyrene. Polystyrene resins are characterized by high resistance to chemical and mechanical stresses at low temperatures and by very low absorption of water. These properties make the polystyrenes especially suitable for radio-frequency insulation and for parts used at low temperatures in refrigerators and in airplanes. PET (polyethene terephthalate) is a transparent thermoplastic used for soft-drinks bottles. Thermoplastics are also viscoelastic, that is, they flow (creep) under stress. Examples are polythene, polystyrene andPVC.2. Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) do not soften when heated, and with strong heating they decompose. In most thermosets final cross-linking, which fixes the molecules, takes place after the plastic has already been formed.Thermosetting plastics have a higher density than thermoplastics. They are less flexible, more difficult to stretch, and are less subjected to creep. Examples of thermosetting plastics include urea-formaldehyde or polyurethane and epoxy resins, most polyesters, and phenolic polymers such as phenol-formaldehyde resin.3. Elastomers are similar to thermoplastics but have sufficient cross-linking between molecules to prevent stretching and creep.
an engineer. sasha started at the school. as his father was away every day inspecting cattle and was sometimes gone for up to three whole days at a time, it seemed to olenka that sasha was completely abandoned, was treated as if he were quite superfluous, and must be dying of hunger. so she transferred him into her part of the house and fixed up a little room for him there. every morning olenka would come
into his room and find him sound asleep with his hand tucked under his cheek, so quiet that he seemed not to be breathing. sashenka, she said sorrowfully, get up, darling. it's time to go to school. he got up, dressed, said his prayers, then sat down to breakfast. the sleep was not yet out of him, so he was a little cross. you don't know your fables as you should, sashenka, said olenca, looking at him as
though he were departing on a long journey. перевести только не с !